FEATURE CRITIQUES

Irapada (2007): How to Build Cinematic Atmosphere

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By Osamudiamen Joseph.

 

While I was watching Irapada again in preparation for this piece, my sister walked in and the following conversation ensued:

“What are you watching?”

“Irapada. That first Kunle Afolayan movie. Remember it?”

“Yes. I remember watching it when we were younger. It wasn’t like any other Yoruba movie we saw during that period. Or even any English movie. It was different.”

“Hmm. I definitely know what you mean.”

If my sister was more fluent in cinematic terms, she’d have used this one word to describe what she felt from the movie: atmosphere.

Atmosphere refers to any concrete or nebulous feeling or quality which adds a dimensional tone to a film’s action. There isn’t any single element we can point to in a movie that is responsible for creating its unique atmosphere; it is rather created in the interplay of different qualities such as the actors’ performances, style of cinematography and editing, sound design, dialogue, and direction. The atmosphere is a consistent mood that runs through a movie permeating every corner of the frame, and every minute of runtime. It is possible that you could see a particular movie; say 2019’s The Lighthouse directed by Robert Eggers or David Lynch’s Mulholland Drive (2001) with your friends, and each one of you would have different interpretations of the story. One thing you would probably all agree on, is the way the movie made you feel.

The Lighthouse (2019) uses a square aspect ratio which like the characters, makes you feel claustrophobic. The sound design ramps up the tension by introducing the sound of a foghorn which is heard before any of the characters even show up on screen. The black-and-white cinematography heightens the rough texture of the world and the unique lighting adds a surreal element to the scenes. Throw in the weird lines of dialogue, and the solid performances from the two actors, and what you have is a film whose atmosphere will continue to hang over audiences long after the credits roll.

Kunle Afolayan’s Irapada has a lot of “atmosphere”.

Irapada begins with a dream. Fog is drifting across the screen as a young man moves towards a pier where a canoe is waiting to take him to the other side. An older woman is on his heels yelling his name. “Dewumi! Dewumi!!” she screams to no avail. The young man does not stop or react. He gets on the canoe. Thunder rumbles in the distance; and lightning flashes add an ethereal quality to the pitch-black sky.

There is a strange-looking man paddling the canoe, his eyes seem to emit fire as he looks back at the older woman and she collapses to the ground. A loud knock is used to transition to the next scene where the older woman wakes up with a look of complete bewilderment drawn across her face.

Unlike the opening of Inception (2010), where for the first couple minutes, we’re kept in the dark about the entire thing being a dream, Irapada lets the audience understand just what is happening. The dream sets the mood for the rest of the film. In forty seconds, Kunle Afolayan lays the foundation for how he wants the audience to feel during the entire runtime. The uncanny nature of the dream, and eerie feeling it creates, looms over every other scene in the film. All the scenes that come after this are viewed in the context of this opening.

Directors present us with ideas in films through characters and their interactions, and also through the worlds the characters inhabit. Irapada’s world is one where everything looks slightly off-kilter, where it feels like; beneath the surface, beyond what we can see, a dark presence lingers, boldly pulling the strings. Irapada begins with Dewumi’s mother, who after having a lot of nightmares about him, decides to seek spiritual guidance on the issue. She is told by the herbalist that calamity is looming over Dewumi and the only way out is to ensure that he comes home to perform the necessary sacrifice. She travels to the northern part of Nigeria where Dewumi, a successful engineer, lives with his wife, Moji. Dewumi refuses to heed her instruction about coming home to make any atonements. His mother is involved a ghastly auto accident on her way back home and she dies. After her burial, Dewumi discovers that the woman was only his foster mother not his biological one.

He returns home and strange things begin to occur. He loses a building contract. One of his workers is killed, and he almost loses his mind trying to get justice. Pandora’s box might as have well been smashed right under his roof, its curses running amok in his home. Dewumi and his lawyer friend, Shehu set out to find a solution to everything going on but everywhere they turn, they meet a concrete wall reinforced with steel. Things go from bad to worse. He loses his house. His wife, unable to take it anymore, goes to stay with a friend. He’d been going head-to-head with Job, and this guy who was struck by lightning seven different times, would have been given the award for the unluckiest fellow that ever lived if his health had deteriorated, or his body had been harmed in any way.

Eventually, he agrees to do the sacrifice and the scene where he does this, is cut together with the scene where his wife is giving birth. At then end, he is able to locate his father who apologizes in tears for the unjust way he treated Dewumi and his biological mother. There and then, he pronounces blessings over Dewumi. “Your strife is over,” he says. “May your days be long.”

The movie ends with text which tells us how the characters end up. “Need we say that they all lived happily ever after,” it says.

The soundtrack is another element that contributed to the atmosphere of unease in the film. Renditions like “Oun oju ri ko ma yi le so o, Which plays over the scene where Dewumi’s mother has an accident and “…gbo kan re le baba,” which comes up when a dejected Dewumi is roaming the streets wondering about his circumstances serve to heighten the movie’s atmosphere. My favorite piece though, plays after everything has been resolved; the lyrics, “a maa sayo m’ayo/ a maa sorire,” are heard as the credits roll.

As Dewumi’s mother boards a bus going to the southern part of the country, the camera zooms into a spider resting on a massive network of webs. It’s a metaphor for Dewumi and his circumstances. If he doesn’t perform the necessary sacrifices, he is going to be helpless like a fly caught in a spider’s web, flailing around but never able to set himself free. The dream at the beginning comes up two more times. It’s the last thing Dewumi’s mother sees before meeting a ghastly death. It comes up again when Dewumi is passed out in a bush after he has just been robbed of all his belongings. This time, the dream is slightly different. He is the one calling to his mum, telling her he doesn’t want to go where the strange-looking man is taking him. The movie brings up this dream again as a means of referring back to the beginning to remind the audience how it felt.

Irapada is a story of many parts and meanings. However, one theme I think it expresses clearly, is the idea of what it takes to succeed. The road to success is hard but with perseverance, the troubles would all be worth it one day. The movie likens this process to carrying a pregnancy to term. It’s interesting that at the beginning, Dewumi’s wife, Moji tells him that she is pregnant about the same time his mother is having the nightmares about him. And at the end, the same time his wife goes into labour, is also the time he performs the sacrifice to redeem himself, and essentially become reborn. The movie even shows the connection between the two events by cutting the scenes together.

All these seemingly little details are what made Irapada remain unforgettable.

Let’s talk about whether the movie holds up. Irapada pales in comparison to Afolayan’s second feature, The Figurine (2009) and is probably not even in his top three greatest movies. Although, you have to admire the passion and the drive behind the scenes. Sure, a couple of the choices seem dated by today’s standards, but I like that even with all the challenges, you can already see the kind of filmmaker Kunle Afolayan would become: an auteur who likes to think outside the box and deliver authentic African stories. One reason I love writing retrospective film essays is because it feels like opening a time capsule or steeping through a time machine to the past— it’s an interesting endeavor to say the least. Irapada came at a time when things were changing in Nollywood. The old was slowly giving way to the new. A fresh generation of filmmakers were rising and taking the industry and the world by storm. Irapada exists at the boundary of both periods; it contains the vestiges of the fading era while also paving the way for the new.

In conclusion, while Irapada does not have any stylish cinematography, outstanding acting performances, or even a huge budget for expensive set pieces or locations, it still manages to stand out because of all the reasons listed in this essay. Kunle Afolayan used the tools at his disposal to create a unique, haunting atmosphere. If your friends and family haven’t seen it in a while, ask them about it. Even if they cannot remember the exact details of the plot or particular lines of dialogue, one thing they are bound to never forget is how the movie made them feel.

 

 

 

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